The concept of matriarchy, where women hold primary power and dominate in roles of political leadership, moral authority, social privilege, and control of property, has been debated among scholars. While some societies have had more gender-balanced power structures or a high degree of respect for women's contributions, there is no evidence to support the idea of a fully matriarchal society where women held complete and unchallenged dominance.
One example of a society that is sometimes cited as matriarchal is the legendary group of warrior women known as the Amazons. The term "Amazon" derives from the Greek word "Amazones," which means "breastless," suggesting that these women were believed to have removed one breast to better wield a bow or a spear. However, this idea is likely a myth and may have been a misinterpretation of depictions of female warriors wearing protective breastplates. The Amazons are often depicted as ruling over men and living without male companionship, but there is little historical evidence to support the idea of a fully matriarchal society.
However, there is evidence of women fighting alongside men in Scythian and Sarmatian cultures of the Black Sea region, which were known to the ancient Greeks. It is possible that the legends of the Amazons were based on real-life women warriors who lived in various regions of the ancient world.
Another example is the Mosuo people of China, who are known for their "walking marriages" in which couples do not live together but rather remain in their respective maternal households. However, some scholars argue that this arrangement does not constitute true matriarchy since men still hold significant power and authority within Mosuo society.
Overall, while there have been many societies where women held significant power and respect, there is no evidence to support the idea of a fully matriarchal society where women held complete and unchallenged dominance. The idea of the Amazons as a fully matriarchal society is likely a myth, as there is little historical evidence to support it. However, the legends of the Amazons and other societies with strong female warriors demonstrate that women have played important roles in many societies throughout history.